At the level that I am in on spoken Korean… I could probably say phrases or short sentences only. It’s really difficult when you speak a second language that is not commonly used in your country. So this post helps in making that short phrases and sentences sounds more natural.
The verb ending -거든요 (-kodeunyo) is used as verb ending for follow thorugh explanation to what has just been said. This is specifically helpful when you try to give explanation or answer fast and want to make a follow through to that statement. In using this verb ending, it somehow creates an impression that you want your listener to nod, acknowledge or further undertand what you said. It’s like saying ‘you see’ at the of the second sentence or phrase.
The -거든요 is added to plain or past bases and rarely on future base. There is no explanation to this on the book but I am guessing since this is a follow through to what you are explaining its a bit awkward to use it for events that are just about to happen . Verbs that are l-extended retain the -l when this ending is added as such you would hear 살거든요 (salkeodeunyo). Here are some samples of the use of this verb ending:
- 나는 맥주를 안 마셔요. 쓴거든요 (Naneun maekjureul an mashyeoyo. Sseunkodeunyo). I don’t drink beer. It’s bitter. [can’t you see]
- 배가 아파요. 너무 많이 먹었든요 (Baega apayo. Neomu manhi meokeotteundyo) My stomach is aching. I ate a lot [can’t you see].
This expression is very handy for someone who wants to add lively mood to describe a mental state or physical sensation. A descriptive verb is added to the expression죽겠어요 (literally means I could die) and its equal to the English expression I feel so…I could die or I am incredibly or terribly so…so…
Here are some examples on the use of this expression:
- 아버지가 보고 싶어서 죽겠어요. (Abojiga bogo shipeoseo chukkesseoyo). I miss my father terribly.
- 배가 아바서 죽겠어요. (Baega apaseo chukkesseoyo) I have a terrible stomach ache.
- 기분이 나빠서 죽겠어요. (Kibuni nappaseo chukkesseoyo). I’m in a foul mood.
- 내가 너무 슬픈해서 죽겠어요. (Naega nomo seulpeunhaeseo chukkesseoyo). I am so sad I could die.
This expression according to the book ,Continuing Korean, is widely used colloquially.
A lot of people I guess find it more challenging to express themselves orally than written specially when using a language outside of your native tongue. Unlike in written form, you have all the time to construct your sentences. Surprisingly Korean has a way of addressing this somehow. Colloquially in my native tongue this normally started with the word ‘tapos’ or ‘tsaka’.
Few days ago I have learned the -고 verb form which joins two sentences or phrases into one compound sentence. This time it’s -고요 (koyo) which can be used after you have said the first sentence and intend to say a follow through or an afterthought. Here are some examples:
우리 도서관에 갈게요? 오후에 2시고요? (Uri doseogwane kalkkeyo? ohue 2 shikayo?) Are we going to the library? 2 o’clock in the afternoon?
답장이 기다려겠어요. 이메일로 받아고요. (Dapjangi kidaryeokesseoyo. Emailro padakoyo) I will be waiting for your reply. Send it through email.
지나 그 치마는 드려요. 그 모자가고요. (Jina sshi ku chimaneun deuryeoyo. Ddo ku mojakakoyo.) Gina please give me that skirt. And that hat too (please give it)
One of the first verb endings I learned is the purposive type (-으)러. When i was starting to learn Korean I was so curious on how statements can be constructed because I am always reminded by the fact that verb is the most important part of it. I was asking my self what if i need to use two verbs? The use of the purposive verb for that moment relieved me with such problem. Now two verbs can exist in a sentence .
The purposive verb (으)러 and the recent verb ending I learned which is -서 are almost the same in use. This is how I found out the difference:
- 친구를 만나러 상가에 갔어요. (Chingureul manareo sagange kasseoyo.) I went to the mall with the purpose of meeting a friend.
- 상가에 가서 친구를 만났어요. (Sagange kaseo chingureul mannasseoyo.) I went to the mall and met a frined or I went to the mall to meet a friend.
The two sentences seems to mean the same on the onset but if you carefully check on it you will notice that the first statement doesn’t tell you if the purpose has been done or accomplished. Unlike the second sentence which emphasized more on meeting the friend than going to the mall.
I am beginning to love Continuing Korean more, i like it that the uses of these verb endings are given more details now.
Last week I learned two useful verb ending that will help connect phrases or thoughts. These are the verb endings -고 and -서 . These two verbs ending is almost the same in function but have difference in meaning. Difference can be noted in the example below:
- 약국에 가고 약을 샀어요. (Yakkuke kago yakeul sasseoyo.) I went to the pharmacy and bought medicine.
- 약국에 가서 약을 샀어요. (Yakkuke kaso yakeul sasseoyo.) I went to the pharmacy so as to buy medicine.
The first sentence where -고 is used, going to the pharmacy and buying of medicine is merely a declaration of two. The second sentence on the otherhand shows purpose/result sentence construction.
So in an English point of view -고 is used to connect phrases to resemble these thought pattern– ‘ and (then afterwards)‘ or ‘and (also in addition). While -서 goes by the thought patterns ‘so‘ or ‘so as to’, it can also mean ‘and then afterwards’ but with emphasis on purpose-result sentence pattern. This means the two phrases or ideas are more linked as sequence of events.
Verb in go form can be formed 2 different ways. First is to add the -고 to the negative verb as shown below:
- 사지 않고 (saji anko) does not buy
- 사지 못 하고 (saji mot hago) can’t buy
- 가지않고 (kaji anko) does not go
- 가지못 하고 (kaji mot hago) can’t go
The second way is to put -고 to the right after the verb that has been negated the short way:
- 안 사고 (an sago) does not buy
- 못 사고 (mot sago) can’t buy
- 안 가고 (an kago) does not go
- 못 가고 (mot kago) can’t go
Here is an example: 점심을 안 먹고 학교에 빨리 갔어요. (Cheomshimeul an meokko hakyeoe palli kasseoyo). He did not eat lunch and then hurriedly went to school.
The -고 (-ko) verb is mainly used to connect to sentences just the way English uses ‘and’ to connect phrases that may or may not stand alone as a phrase. Unlike the English ‘and’ the -고 verb is used with these two meanings:
- does this and also…
- having done or been [so and so] and then…
When -고 is used to break a long sentence into parts, the actions linked by the -고 verb normally happens alongside each other. Below are some samples of its use:
- [and also] 나한테는 가방을 주고, 언니한테는 꽃을 드렸어요 (Nahanteneun jugo, eonnihanteneun kkocheul deuryeosseoyo) He gave me a bag and gave my sister flowers. Note that the past tense is apply only in the verb at the end, this is because verbs in -고 form does not take tenses.
- [and then] 나는 아침을 먹고 도서관에 갔어요 (Naneun achimeul mokko doseogwane kasseoyo) I ate lunch and then went to the library.