Directional Particles To and From

Previously I learned that the particle 에 is used to mark location (whether inside, outside, front, back etc.).  This particle is versitile as it is also used to mark ‘TO’ direction like when you say going to Makati….or to Cubao.  The particle 에 (pronounced as eh) is also used to mark direction to for places or non living things while for living things 한테 (pronounced as han-te) is used.  Here are some examples:

  • 이본에 가요 (ilbone kayo) – goes to Japan
  • 식당에 가요 (shiktang kayo) – goes to restaurant or canteen
  • 내 어머니한테 줘요 (nae omonihante  jwoyo) – gives to my mother or can be
  • 내 어머니에게 줘요 (nae omoni-eke jwoyo)

To express ‘direction from’ 서  is added to the previous particle. So for living thins it will 한테서 (hanteso) or 에게서 (ekeso) while for non-living things or places it will be 에서.  These are some examples I can think of:

  • 내 친구한테서 (chingu hanteso) – from my friend
  • 진며 씨한태서 (JinMyungshi hanteso) – from Jinmyung or it can also be written as 진며 씨에게서 (JinMyungshi ekeso)
  • 식당에서 (shiktangeso) – from the restaurant or canteen

Since these are particles, there should not be any pause when pronouncing it along with the word it preceeds as if it’s just one word.

Place Nouns and 에

I learned place nouns as Korean would name it.  The use of this nouns and 에 will help communicate clearly specially when location is discussed.  Among the few place nouns i learned are:

  • 안 (inside) used primarily when describing a space or location that can be loosely filled
  • 속 (inside) same meaning as 인 but is used mainly for space or location which can be easily identified as filled
  • 밖 (outside)
  • 위 (above, on top, over)
  • 밑 (below, bottom, underneath)
  • 아래 (lower, down, below)
  • 앞 (in front)
  • 뒤 (at the back, behind)
  • 근처 (within the vicinity, near)
  • 옆 (next to, beside)
  • 사이 (between)

Positioning of the noun is important since the above place nouns can be used to modify another noun.  I thought the language is not sensitive to such but I was wrong:

  • 문 뒤에 –  would mean behind the door or located behind the door but if word order is changed to
  • 뒤 문 –  it would then mean the ‘back door’ or door at the back or door behind.  뒤 is used to modify 문

 I also learned one important place noun which will be helpful when I travel to Korea, this is 편 or 쯕 which denotes direction or side (as location).  So to say the following:

  • On left – 왼 편에 or 왼 쯕에
  • On right – 오른 편에 or 오른 쯕에

Particles 에 and 하고

Indeen Korean uses particles in so many ways, this time I have learned two new ones.  The first of which is the particle 에 which is used to mark location.  Below are some examples on how this particle can be used:

  • 나는 식당 안 있어요 (I am inside the restaurant)
  • 제인 학교 없어요 (Jane is not in school)

Unlike in the English language, this particle is placed after the noun to indicate location.  Just like other particles, it is pronounced as if part of the word itself which means you don’t need to pause after the word.   However there are exemptions where the particle 에 is not sounded this is specifically true if the word is ending in 이,에 or 애 but for most vowels the 에 must be sounded.   The word between in korea is an exemption to this rule, 사이에 is pronounced with the 에 sounded .  On my observation since the 3 other vowels sounds similar with 에, this is perhaps the reason why its addition has no effect on spoken word but rather a useful marker in written Korean.

Another important particle I  learned is 하고 (hago where go is pronounced with a rounded ‘o’ like goat).  This particle can either mean and or with depending on the use.  Below are examples:

  • 하고 연필 (literally means books and pencils) – note that the particle is connected as part of word book which is 잭 (chaek) therefore it should be pronounced seamlessly (no pausing).
  • When asked — ‘어디에 있어요?’ (Who are you with?).  The answer could be…  나는 친구하고 있어요 (I am with a friend)

I am now getting more used to particles… looking forward for more.