So i have learned that the simple modifier (으)ㄴ can be easily done by attaching it to base for of the verb. USing this modifer allows creation of noun phrse or a clause that modifies a noun. The simple modifier has two meanings. With an adjective it means that is or equals noun.
- 큰 가방 (keun kabang) 크 descriptive verb meaning large added with simple modifier ㄴ and 가방 meaning bag. This noun phrase means large bag or a bag that is large.
- 좋은 아침 (choeun achim) good morning or morning that is good
- 예쁜 여자 (yeppeun yoja) beautiful lady or a lady that is beautiful
This simple modifier when added to a processive (action) verb, it has the past meaning like has done or that someone did or has done. The tense is the difference compared to the use of simple modifier with descriptive verb.
- 떠난 남자 (ddonan namja) 떠나 meaning left and 남자 meaning a man or a guy. This noun phrase means the guy who left.
- 읽은 편지 (ilkeun pyeonji) the letter that (I did) read
- 만난 친구 (mannan chingu) the friend I met
Since the processive verb when added with this simple modifier has the past meaning, it is therefore impossible to put this simple modifier to past base form of the verb like 만났은 친구.
Looks pretty easy for now. Although there maybe slight difference the way you do it in English, this is the beauty of the Korean language with just a simple addition of ㄴ to a verb followed by a noun you instantly make a noun phrase.
Every time I open my Continuing Korean book, I always end up reading the lesson on modifiers. I wonder if I would be able to move forward from this lesson. It looks really easy from the beginning and gets difficult as you build your sentence.
I just reviewed how to turn verbs into a modifier form. It really is so simple, just add ㄴ to the base of a verb ending in vowel or 은 if the verb ends in consonant. Here are some examples:
This simple verb in modifier forms has two meanings.
- With a descriptive verb, it means the noun that is –> 좋은 아침 (choeun achim) good morning or a morning that is good.
- With a processive verb, it has a past meaning –> 만난 사람 (mannan saram) the person that (i) met.
The use of modifier in Korean verb is simply amazing. You know how verbs in English can come in different forms too and in Korean modifiers are usually added to the base or infinitive form of the verb to conjugate it.
The modifier 던 (deon) is something that i always hear when Koreans speak. It’s a modifier that is attached to the basic form of the verb which will give the verb the meaning of having done doing so and so. Yes it’s retrospective, so it gives the meaning of doing something in the past.
Based from what I read the modifier 던 when used with simple base have the same meaning with the pattern <verb>고 있었어요 (verb+go isseosseoyo). I remember this pattern very well. Like when you say 먹고 있었어요 (meokko isseosseoyo) it means ‘was eating’. So the simple 먹던 (moekdeon) would mean the same thing. Comparing the two, this is how it goes:
- 그 학생이 여기서 자장면을 먹고 있었어요. (Ku haksaengi yogiso jajangmyeoneul mokko isseosseoyo.) – That student was eating jajangmyeon noodles here.
- 여기서 자장면을 먹던 학생. (Yogiseo jajangmyeoneul meokdeon haksaeng) . The student who eating jajangmyeon noodles or has been eating jajangmyeon noodles here.
So bottomline, these two patterns mean was VERBing. As final note, you may hear this modifier sound like 든 (deun) for some Korean speakers, they also sometimes spell it that way.
The use of modifier -는 (neun) and 은 (eun) is definitely one of the hardest lessons that i have learned and still learning in the study of Korean Language. I think until now I am only confident in using these as markers for topic. I am currently reading the advance book for learning Korean which is Continuing Korean (sort of sequel to Elementary Korean) and the lessons are mostly on the use of these modifiers.
The modifier -는 (neun) is used for processive verbs, it turns a phrase into a topic something comparable to a noun phrase in English. A processive verb with this modifier (verb+는) followed by 것 (keot) would mean the fact of doing so-and-so or the fact that one does so-and-so.
Same pattern can be used for plain modifier processive or descriptive verb + 은/ㄴ(ㄴif base ends with vowel) followed by 것. This would mean the fact that one did (processive verb) or that is (descriptive verb) .
Here are some examples:
- 자는 것 (chaneun keot) – the fact that someone is sleeping
- 잔 것 (chan keot) – the fact that someone slept
- 한국어 책을 읽는 (hangugeo chaekeul ikneun keot) – someone is reading Korean book
- 비가 오는 것 (biga oneun keot) – the fact that its raining
- 비가 온 것 ( biga on keot – the fact that it rained
In practical use, 것 is sometimes abbreviated to 거 (keo) and it still would mean the same. Now, let me practice how to use this modifier into sentence:
- 엄마가 자는 것을 몰랐어요. (Ommaga chaneun keoseul mollaseoyo). I did not know that mother is sleeping.
- 학생이 한국어 책 읽는 것을 봤어요. (Haksaengi hangugeo chaek ikneun koseul bwasseoyo). I saw a student reading Korean book.
- 비가 온 것이 싫어요. (Biga on koshi shiroyo) I hate that it rained.