Yesterday the compound verbs I got to confirm and learn has something to do with 가 ( ka) and 와 (wa). This time its one of my overly used verb 있다 (itta) the dictionary form which means to exist, is or stays.
Just like yesterday’s lesson, it’s verb + this verb, 있어요 (isseoyo) equals resultant state. Here are some examples of compound verbs where 있어요 acts as auxiliary verb to arrive in a resultant state:
|앉아 (anja) sit
||앉아 있어요 (anja isseoyo)
|닫혀 (dachyeo) close
||닫혀 있어요 (dachyeo isseoyo)
|들어 (deuro) enter or go into
||들어 있어요 (deuro isseoyo
|열려 (yeollyeo) open
||열려 있어요 (yeollyeo isseoyeo)
These compound verb expressions can be turned into negative by adding 지 않아요 (-지 않아요) to 있다 (Note: Remembering the long negatives) So the expression ‘is not seated’ will be 앉아 있지 않아요 (anja ittji anayo).
Examples in sentence use:
- 약국이 아직도 닫혀 있어요? ( Yakkuki ajikdo dachyeo isseoyo?) Is the pharmacy still closed?
- 언제 새 도서관이 열려 있어요? (Onje sae dosogwani yeollyeo isseoyo?) When is the new library open?
I love how useful the word 있다. A caution is provided in the book, it says there is a different pattern when the resultant state ha something to do with wearing. instead of the verb + 있어요, the -고 form is used + 있어요. As such to say ‘Father is wearing a necktie’ one would say 아버지가 넥타이를 매고 있으세요 (Abeojika nektaireul maego isseuseyo).
Reading the lesson 17 puts a smile on my face. While reading descriptive +해요 verbs, which was my previous post, it was like confirming my hunch before that there are verbs in Korean which are combination of two verbs. Today, I have discovered 2 main processive verbs which when combined with another verb makes them an auxiliary verb to show direction.
Here are some compound verbs formed with 가 (ka) and 와 (wa) :
||Compound Verb Meaning
||돌아가요 (dorakayo)돌아와요 (dorawayo)
||Goes backComes back
||들어가요 (deureokayo)들어와요 (deureowayo)
||Goes inComes in
||나가요 (nakayo)나와요 (nawayo)
||Goes outComes out
||걸어가요 (keoreokayo)걸어와요 (keoreowayo)
||Walks (there)Walks (here)
||올라가요 (ollakayo)올라와요 (ollawayo)
||Goes upComes up
||Goes down Comes down
I remember the first Korean song that I liked from Se7en (a popular artist in Korea) which was 와줘 (Wajuwo) which carried an English title Comeback. In the chorus of the song the word 돌아와줘 (Dorawajuwo) is repeatedly said. One of my language exchange partners then told me it means comeback. I asked him how come the title of the song is 와줘? He said it’s the same with some nuances on use and that 와줘 in reality just means come. Now I know what the nuance is… because 와 can be used plainly to say comeback and may depend on the scenario when it is said but to say 돌아와 would exactly mean comeback and may not be applicable when you just plainly want to mean come.
The beauty of Korean language continues to amaze me.
So there is something called compound verbs in the Korean Language. I am guessing that there is such as I have encountered some verbs which seems to be a formation of 2 stand alone verbs. The versatile 하 (ha) verb which carries a meaning of does it or thinks turns some descriptive verb into a processive one, similar to what I have posted yesterday.
When 하 or 해요 is added to verbs like 좋아 (choa) and 고마워 (komawo) these becomes a compound verb expressions which means likes and grateful for respectively. The infinitive verb + the verb 해 equals to a compound verb.
The 하 in this way becomes as auxiliary verb which completes the expression whether to make it negative or positive. It is also in the auxiliary verb that the honorific marker is attached. Tenses likewise happens in the auxiliary verb. Here are some examples:
- 부러워해요 (bureowohaeyo) to be envious
- 부러워 안 해요 (bureowo anhaeyo) is not envious
- 부러워했어요 (bureowohaesseoyo) envied
Same can be applied to verb 행복해요 (haengbokhaeyo) which means to be happy. Manipulation happens in the auxiliary verb 해요.