A year ago when I started the difficult battle of learning Korean Language, i seek refuge with websites that offer Language Exchange Partners which I fondly called my LEPs. I had a few and they come and go. One of the earliest question I asked was how to express ‘i would like to…’ At that time I learned about -고 싶다 (-go shipda) verb which is used to express wish, desire or want. But one of my LEPs told me to use the verb 좋겠어 (jokesso). He told me this is commonly used because -go shipda can only be used to express one’s (first person sentence). I was confused then.
One’s desires, wants and wishes are expressed by using the auxiliary verb -고 싶어요 (-go shipeoyeo). To say someone other than you desires, wants and wishes to… -고 싶어해요 (-go shipeohaeyo) is used. However to say someone likes something, one can use 좋아세요 (choaseyo) or 좋아해요 (choahaeyo).
Here are some sample application:
- 비빔밥을 먹고 싶어요. ( Bibimbapeul mokko shipeoyeo) – I want to eat bibimbap.
- 친구는 비빔밥을 먹고 싶어해요. ( Chinguneun bibimbapeul mokko shipeohaeyo) – My friend wants to eat bibimbap.
- 친구는 비빔밥을 좋아해요. (Chinguneun bibimbap choahaeyo) – My friend likes bibimbap.
The auxiliary verb 져요 turns a descriptive verb in infinitive form into something that means get or become. Aside from the plain infinitive form, this auxilliary verb can be attached to verbs in other forms as shown below using 나빠요 (is worse or is bad):
- 나빠졌어요 (nappajyeosseoyo) – got worse or got bad. Yes, the past indicator is added after the auxiliary form.
- 나빠질 거에요 (nappajil keo.eyo) – will get hot. Note that it’s not 져 but rather 지 because as mentioned in previous post future from is normally added on plain base so in this case 져 becomes 지 since its just an abbreviation of 지어요.
- 나빠지지만 (nappajijiman) – gets hot, but.
- 나빠질 까요? (nappajil kkayo?) – do you suppose it will get hot?
From this, I am thinking that when the verbs taking the 져 form should be taken as the one compound verb itself such that any rules in changing its form whether it be past, future or other applicable verb endings will be followed with consideration of compound verb ending as either 지 or 져.
So even for the auxiliary verb 고 싶어, 져 can be used. The meaning becomes ‘gets to want to do <verb>’. Altogether the form becomes plain base+고 싶어져요.
Another useful auxiliary verb I have learned today is 져요 (jyeoyo) which means begins to be or gets (to be) when added to a verb in infinitive form. It is actually an abbreviation of 지어요 (jieoyo).
It is added to descriptive verbs in infinitive form to form a processive verb compound. Here are some examples:
- 좋아요 (choayo) is good –> 좋아져요 (choajyeo) gets/becomes better
- 나빠요 (nappayo) is bad –> 나빠져요 (nappajyeoyo) gets/becomes worse
- 바뻐요 (bappeoyo) is busy –> 바뻐져요 (bappeojyeoyo) gets/becomes busy
- 더워요 (deowoyo) is hot –> 더워져요 (deowojyeoyo) gets hot, warms up
Similar to particles, the auxiliary verb 져요 when added should be spelled without space making it part of the entire word.
Before anything else. Today is February 5 and it’s a special day for my favorite Korean artist, no less than the very talented Wheesung. 휘성 씨 생일 축하해요! 행복하세요…
Anyway today another clouded verb which is known to me as to see or looks became clearer on its other meaning. 보다 (dictionary form for this verb) has other uses aside from the act of looking or seeing something. Surprisingly just like 해요 and 있어요, this verb can be used an auxiliary verb and when it is preceeded by a verb in infinitive form its meaning becomes ‘tries doing’. It’s not an attempt to but rather tries to.
In our class my professor would normally say 여기 보세요 (yeogi poseyo). which of course means look here. Then he would also use 보세요 in expressions like 읽어 보세요 (ilko poseyo). This time I am wondering why not say 주세요 (juseyo) when he wants us to read something. Now its clear because of this.
Here are some practical applications of this auxiliary verb:
- 한국말로 이메일을 써 봐요. (Hangukmalro imaireul sseo bowayo). I am trying to write email in Korean.
- 김치를 먹어 봤어요? (Kimchireul meokeo bowasseody?) Have you tried eating kimchi?
- 서울에 가 보셨어요? (Seoure ka bowasyeosseoyo?) Have you been to Seoul?
Yesterday the compound verbs I got to confirm and learn has something to do with 가 ( ka) and 와 (wa). This time its one of my overly used verb 있다 (itta) the dictionary form which means to exist, is or stays.
Just like yesterday’s lesson, it’s verb + this verb, 있어요 (isseoyo) equals resultant state. Here are some examples of compound verbs where 있어요 acts as auxiliary verb to arrive in a resultant state:
|앉아 (anja) sit
||앉아 있어요 (anja isseoyo)
|닫혀 (dachyeo) close
||닫혀 있어요 (dachyeo isseoyo)
|들어 (deuro) enter or go into
||들어 있어요 (deuro isseoyo
|열려 (yeollyeo) open
||열려 있어요 (yeollyeo isseoyeo)
These compound verb expressions can be turned into negative by adding 지 않아요 (-지 않아요) to 있다 (Note: Remembering the long negatives) So the expression ‘is not seated’ will be 앉아 있지 않아요 (anja ittji anayo).
Examples in sentence use:
- 약국이 아직도 닫혀 있어요? ( Yakkuki ajikdo dachyeo isseoyo?) Is the pharmacy still closed?
- 언제 새 도서관이 열려 있어요? (Onje sae dosogwani yeollyeo isseoyo?) When is the new library open?
I love how useful the word 있다. A caution is provided in the book, it says there is a different pattern when the resultant state ha something to do with wearing. instead of the verb + 있어요, the -고 form is used + 있어요. As such to say ‘Father is wearing a necktie’ one would say 아버지가 넥타이를 매고 있으세요 (Abeojika nektaireul maego isseuseyo).
Reading the lesson 17 puts a smile on my face. While reading descriptive +해요 verbs, which was my previous post, it was like confirming my hunch before that there are verbs in Korean which are combination of two verbs. Today, I have discovered 2 main processive verbs which when combined with another verb makes them an auxiliary verb to show direction.
Here are some compound verbs formed with 가 (ka) and 와 (wa) :
||Compound Verb Meaning
||돌아가요 (dorakayo)돌아와요 (dorawayo)
||Goes backComes back
||들어가요 (deureokayo)들어와요 (deureowayo)
||Goes inComes in
||나가요 (nakayo)나와요 (nawayo)
||Goes outComes out
||걸어가요 (keoreokayo)걸어와요 (keoreowayo)
||Walks (there)Walks (here)
||올라가요 (ollakayo)올라와요 (ollawayo)
||Goes upComes up
||Goes down Comes down
I remember the first Korean song that I liked from Se7en (a popular artist in Korea) which was 와줘 (Wajuwo) which carried an English title Comeback. In the chorus of the song the word 돌아와줘 (Dorawajuwo) is repeatedly said. One of my language exchange partners then told me it means comeback. I asked him how come the title of the song is 와줘? He said it’s the same with some nuances on use and that 와줘 in reality just means come. Now I know what the nuance is… because 와 can be used plainly to say comeback and may depend on the scenario when it is said but to say 돌아와 would exactly mean comeback and may not be applicable when you just plainly want to mean come.
The beauty of Korean language continues to amaze me.
So there is something called compound verbs in the Korean Language. I am guessing that there is such as I have encountered some verbs which seems to be a formation of 2 stand alone verbs. The versatile 하 (ha) verb which carries a meaning of does it or thinks turns some descriptive verb into a processive one, similar to what I have posted yesterday.
When 하 or 해요 is added to verbs like 좋아 (choa) and 고마워 (komawo) these becomes a compound verb expressions which means likes and grateful for respectively. The infinitive verb + the verb 해 equals to a compound verb.
The 하 in this way becomes as auxiliary verb which completes the expression whether to make it negative or positive. It is also in the auxiliary verb that the honorific marker is attached. Tenses likewise happens in the auxiliary verb. Here are some examples:
- 부러워해요 (bureowohaeyo) to be envious
- 부러워 안 해요 (bureowo anhaeyo) is not envious
- 부러워했어요 (bureowohaesseoyo) envied
Same can be applied to verb 행복해요 (haengbokhaeyo) which means to be happy. Manipulation happens in the auxiliary verb 해요.
This is one of the most useful words in Korean. 싶어 is an auxilliary verb in the infinitive form, the base is 싶. When used it is usually follows this pattern base form of a processive verb with -고 (go) attached to it and then 싶어 (shipo). In formula its like:
base form of verb+고<space> 싶어
A classic example is 보 (bo) which means ‘see’ it’s commonly used with 싶어. This phrase 보고 싶어 (bogo shipo) means want to see, it likewise means I miss you. You might be wondering where is ‘you’ in that phrase, as you know in Korean subject in a sentence can actually be dropped such that 보고 싶어 is already an intimate way of saying I want to see you or I miss you. Add 요 (yo) then the statement becomes in polite form, 보고 싶어요 (bogo shipoyo) that is.
- 살고 싶어 (salko shipo means want to live or wish to leave)
- 하고 싶어 (hago shipo mean want to do or wish to do in this case the verbal noun or noun marked by particle 를/을 should preceed 하고 )
싶어 is used in a sentence to express 1st person (I/we want) wants, desires or wishes and can not be used to express want or desires of another person. It can be used in though 2nd person (do you want..) questions.
To use this auxilliary verb for 3rd person statements or questions (he,she, they, it) the pattern should be <base form of processive verb>+고 then followed by 싶어해요. Instead of 싶어, the verb takes the form 싶어하.
Always remember descriptive verb cannot be directly attached to 고. As discussed previouslt descriptive verb are those that are non-separable. By saying non-separable, it means the verb cannot be transformed to pattern verb+object particle 을/를 followed by 해요 (haeyo is the versitile processive verb which means does or performs something). Most importantly this is used to express ONE’s wish or desire.
I’ll be posting more on this auxilliary verb…