This is something that I learned in Korean 1 at the University that I am currently enrolled with. How to express location.
- 이 (i) mean this, used when pointing objects near the speaker
- 그 (ku), means that, used when pointing objects far from the speaker
- 저 (cho), means that over there, used when pointing objects that is a bit far from both the speaker and the listener.
This is normally used followed by a noun. So using the word 사람 (saram) which means person:
- 이 사람이 제 친구입니다 or 친구예요 (I sarami che chinguimnida/I saram.i che chinguyeyo) – This person is my friend
- 그 사람이 제 친구입니다 or 친구예요 (Ku sarami che chinguimnida/ Ku sarami che chinguyeyo) – That person is my friend.
- 저 사람이 제 친구입니다 or 친구예요 (Cho sarami che chinguimnida/ Cho sarami che chinguyeyo) – That person overthere is my friend.
In red is the subject particle added to the word 사람 it is pronounced as saramee (‘i’ sounds like east). This is used to mark subject in a sentence 가 (ka) if the subject ends in vowel. See previous post about subject particle.
The wonders of Korean language. As you know in English verbs are supposedly action words and adjectives are words used to describe — in short descriptive words. In Korean, verb as I have always been mentioning is the most important part of the statement and is usually placed at the end.
Adjectives in Korean are formed by manipulating the form of a descriptive verb. An example is the word 예쁘 (yeppu which means pretty) the infinitive form of this descriptive verb is 예뻐 (yeppo). As discussed previously on creating the infinitive form of words, if it ends in ㅡ, the letter is dropped and ㅏ or ㅓ is added depending on the vowel before ㅡ, so in the case of yeppu its ㅖ by rule the infinitive form should end with ㅓ. So how is the adjective derived from this word? simply add ㄴ so its 예쁘+ㄴ = 예쁜 (yeppun or romanized as yeppeun in some cases).
The same thing is applied when transforming the word 기쁘 (gippu) to an adjective, it becomes 기쁜 (gippun or gippeun).
I have a feeling that there are other ways to transform words into adjective in Korean… maybe in the future lessons of the book I’d be able to find this out.