Another Way to Say ‘And’

There are  four ways that I learned to express ‘and’ in Korean.  One  is through particles 과/와  (gwa/wa) which is used to connect nouns, 과 attached to noun ending in vowel while 와 for consonant.  The two other particles are 하고 and (이)랑 or hago and (i)rang as Romanized. Although 하고 can also mean with it also means and.  The last one is used to connect ideas, phrases or clauses by attaching -고 (-ko) to verb which I have more recent post about.

This time I am introduced to another two shape ending which function the same as above is -(으)며 or (eu) myeo. It can be compared to the one shape ending -고 (-go) however (으) 며 is more bookish, it is not used in spoken Korean.   Also, this two shape ending is limited to mean and or sometimes while but never as the other functions -고.

Here is an example:

오늘은 비가 와 내일도 비가 오고 추울 거에요. (Oneureun biga wamyeo naeildo biga ogo chuwoyo.) Today it’s raining, and tomorrow it will be raining and cold too.

When  (으)며 is added to a verb that is considered as l-extending like the word 살 (sal), the l is retained.  I have noticed this pattern to be true for all two shape particles; the l-extending verbs keep the ‘l’.

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Base Words of Verbs – A Review

For the past months, i gained better understanding of Korean words. From my confusion in using the English-Korean Dictionary to how words are used in the different styles or manner of speaking in Korean, i think I have better appreciation now.

I am almost done reading my Elementary Korean book.  After nearly a year and half, I am finally seeing last part of the book’s pages and now looking forward to read Continuing Korean (sequel to Elementary Korean). Since the last portion of the book deals with the more advance verb ending and expressing future events, I decided to make a review of the word formation.  This would likewise give preview on changing verbs into future tense.

Just to recap when looking for words in a dictionary specifically for verbs, you will notice a pattern.  Verbs normally ends in -다 (da). So Korean words for verbs like eat and drink can be found as  먹다 (meokda – pronounced as meoktta) and 마시다 (mashida – pronounced as mashitta).   Removing the 다 leaves you with the regular or plain base of the verb, 먹 and 마시 (meok and mashi).  The plain base form of verb is important, a lot of verb endings are attached to this form.

Infinitive form of the word is derived using some rules but basically verb in its infinitive form either ends in ㅏ (a) or ㅓ (eo).  Consonant ending verbs follows rules on which to add.  For the example above the infinitive form of 먹다 is 먹어 (meogeo).  This is covered by rule that last  vowel of a consonant ending verb will determine which character to add to form the infinitive form. Except for ㅗ andㅏthe rest of vowel takes ㅓ as verb ending.  Now for the other word, 마시다 becomes 마셔 (masyo).  Verb ending in ㅣ takes ㅓ in infinitive ㅣ(ee)+ㅓ(eo) = ㅕ(yeo).   Search for my post on infinitives for the complete rules.  Just remember that the infinitive verb is alreay usable in a conversation on intimate style.  It is also in this form that the polite casual style verb ending 요 (yo)  is attached.

The other base form is the ‘past base’.  This is formed by taking the plain infinitive of the verb plus -ㅆ (ss). Just like the regular infinitive, past infinitive is achieved by adding ㅓsuch that 먹었 (meogeott – past base) becomes 먹었어 (meogeotteo).

The last base word form is the ‘future base’ which is formed by adding 겠 to the plain infinitive form of a verb.  Using our previous example 먹어 (infinitive form)  becomes 먹어겠 (meogeokett) and by adding ㅓ makes the future infinitive for the verb, that is 먹어겠어 (meogeokesseo).

It’s going to be all about the future on the succeeding post.

Expression: Going (가) and Coming (와) and Particle 로

The verb 가 (ka) and 와 (wa – infinitive form) are just two of the most commonly used verbs.  가 means go while 와 means come.  This post is a tip on how the particle 로 (ro) works perfectly with this two verbs.  As discussed in previous post 로 is a particle attached to noun which creates the meaning via, through or by means of the nound to which it is attached.

Vehicle+로 then destination and the verb does the trick.  Here are examples:

  • 기차로 학교에 가요  (Kicharo hakyoe kayo) Goes to school by train
  • 기차로 학교에 와요  (Kicharo hakyoe wayo) Comes to school by train
  • 바스로 가요 (Basuro kayo) Goes by bus
  • 택시로 왔어요 (Taekshiro wasseoyo) Came by taxi

내가 자동차로 사무실용 건물에 가요  (Naega chadongcharo samushilyong keonmure kayo).  I go to the office by car.

Presenting Options Using ‘Or’

This post is about two simple Korean words I learned which allows you to present two options.  This is similar to the English word ‘or’. These two words are 또는 (ddoneun) and 아니면 (animyeon).  Here are sample phrases:

  • 커피 또는 우유 (kopi ddoneun uyu)
  • 커피 아니면 우유 (kopi animyeon uyu)

Both phrases mean coffee or milk, the difference is that when you use 또는 you are presenting two contrasting ideas therefore  one of the choices will be excluded unlike 아니면 which presents two ideas that are both acceptable.

These words can occur at the beginning of the sentence.  As in the example below:

  • 기차로 갈까요?  아니면 택시로 갈까요?  (Kicharo kalkkayo? Animyon tekshiro kalkkayo?) Should we take the train? Or (else) shall we take a taxi?  In this sample, both options is of course acceptable to the speaker.
  • 영화관에 가지 않았어요. 또는 음악희에도 가지 않았어요. (Yonghwagwane kaji anasseoyo. Ddoneun eumakhui.edo kaji anasseoyo.) I have not been to movie theater [and I don’t like movies anyway]. Nor have I been [on the other hand] to any concert [and I do like concert].   This statement plainly states not being able to go to movie theater the second statement is the same  but with the use of 또는 in the beginning of the second statement the thought enclosed is considered in the overall context of the statement as such the second statement means not being able to go but would like to go.

More on -고 있어요

If you have read the post before this one,  you are aware that -고 있어요 (-go isseyo) is used to express an action in progress something similar to ‘verbing‘ like eating, dancing etc.

This verb ending can also be tensed (past progressive).  So if 쓰고 있어요 (Sseugo isseoyo) means ‘is writing’ then 쓰고 있었어요 (Sseugo isseosseoyo) means ‘was writing’.  Please note that the tense is applied not on the base of the verb but to the ending 있.

Negative expression can also be made in either on the verb used or on the  entire expression itself.  Using the example above, if you want to say is not writing then you can say 쓰고 있지 않아요 (Sseugo ittji anayo).  Sounds familiar right?  This has been discussed in my previous post on negating verbs.  This is the long negative form.   Now if you want to say something like ‘manage to get by without writing’ or ‘not writing at this time’ then you can say 쓰지 않고 있어요 (Sseuji ango isseoyo).

Is doing… using 고 있어요

This is another way of expressing actions.  The simple phrase ‘먹어요’ (meokeoyo) in a conversation can mean:

  • I am eating
  • is eating
  • let’s eat or
  • simply eat

Instead of the plain phrase above it can be stated this way — 먹고 있어요 (moekko isseoyo) with a subject or an object this phrase can mean is eating or still eating.   This verb endig can only be used in pair with a processive verb and it denotes an action in progress.  So it’s the base form of the processive verb +고 있어요 as cited in the example above, 먹, which is the base of the word 먹다 (meoktta- to eat). Other examples are as follows:

  • 가고 있어요 (kago isseoyo – is going)
  • 자고 있어요 (jago isseoyo – is sleeping or still sleeping)

Please note that this verb ending when attached to -ㄹ extending verb keeps the ㄹ instead of dropping it.  So for the word 살다 (saltta), which means to live, becomes 살고 있어요 (salko isseoyo).  Note how this verb ending behaves, it is  just like -고 싶어요 (-ko shipoyo) which has been discussed in my previous post.

To make the verb ending honorific, just change 있어요 with 계세요 (kyeseyo).  As we know 있다 (itta – dictionary form) or 있어 (isseo – infinitive form) means to exist or to stay this is the plain verb,  the honorific one is 계 (kye).   Reminds you of 안녕히 계세요 (annyeonghi kyeseyo) use to say goodbye to someone who is ‘staying’.

Probable Future with (으)ㄹ 거에요

Done with the present and past expression now its time to learn how to say things or events which you intend to do in the future or will probably do in the future.

The verb ending  -(으)ㄹ 거에요 [-(eu)l keoeyo can be added to plain base or honorific base to mean will probably <verb>.  Let’s take the word 바쁘다 (pappeuda – to be busy ) as an example.  The base word is  바쁘 (pappeu) so 바쁠 거에요 (pappeul koeyo) means ‘will probably be busy’ or ‘is going to be busy’.   So if you say 내일 내가 바쁠 거에요 (Naeil naega pappeul keoeyo), it means I will (probably) be busy tomorrow.

In earlier post, creating honorific base for of verb has been discussed.  This is done by adding -시 on the plain base form of the verb.  As such 바쁘 becomes 바쁘시 (pappeushi) in honorific form.  Remember you don’t use honorific verb in pertaining to your own actions, it is used when speaking to an esteemed person (someone older or of higher status than you — to show respect).  Therefore, you wouldn’t say 내일 내가 바쁘실 거에요 (Naeil neaga pappeushil koeyo).  The first form discussed is more appropriate.   내일 당신이 바쁘실 거에요 (Naeil dangsini pappeushil keoeyo) is saying ‘you will (probably) be busy tomorrow’ to an esteemed person.

This verb ending can also be added to past base form of verb.  It’s a bit weird that a verb in past form is added with a verb ending that is indicative of something that you will do in the future.  Anyway, in my previous post, changing verb in to past form is done by adding  -ㅆ어 (-sseo) to the infinitive form of the verb.  I know it’s a bit complex so i suggest you read the post on base and  infinitive forms of verb.   So let’s use the word 가 (ka)which means go, as an example.  This verb is base and at the same time infinitive in form, 갔어 (kasseo) is the past base form.  To use this verb in probably future form, simply add the verb ending to get this form 갔얼 거에요 (kasseol keoeyo).

For the plain base, verb ending in consonant should take the -을 거에요 (eul keoeyo).  This applies to verbs like 읽 (ik) which is base of the word 읽다 (iktta) which means to read.  To say ‘i will read this book’ you can say 이 책이 읽 거에요 (I chaeki ikeul keoeyo).  Same transformation can be performed for base verbs like 먹 (meok –  means eat) and 앉 (anj- sit).  Their probable future form  would be 먹을 거에요 (meokeul keo eyo) and 앉을 거에요 (anjeul keoeyo) to mean  ‘will eat’  and ‘will sit’  respectively.

Note:  을 거에요 will not happen for honorific form and past base form of verb as verbs will always end in 시 and -ㅆ어 which are both vowel.