When I started learning Korean almost 4 years ago, I thought it would be as simple as learning the writing system which is 항글 (Hangul) and studying meaning of words, then I would be ready to communicate in Korean. So when I memorized those characters and bought a dictionary, I hurriedly looked for a Language Exchange partner only to find out I am far from being a decent speaker.
Since I don’t have time to attend a formal class I opted to buy a text book that will allow me to understand Hangul. I learned my first big lesson, this language is not like learning English. The basic structure of a Korean sentence is Subject-Object-Verb or SOV in short. No wonder I sounded like a fool putting up those words based on their dictionary meaning just how I would construct my English sentence. The sentence structure alone is a big difference. So when we typically say ‘I love you’, in Korean, the order would be ‘I you love’. The order of words in a sentence also signifies their importance. The first in the order is the least important and that the verb is the most important component of the sentence. The first words in a sentence are most likely to be dropped. This is because the subject or even the object can be implied in a conversation.
Using the sample statement ‘I love you’, this is 나 너를 사랑해요 (na noreul saranghaeyo) in Korean. Let’s dissect this simple statement.
- 나 (Na means I)
- 너를 (noreul means you)
- 사랑해요 (saranghaeyo mean love)
You might have heard 사랑해요 (saranghaeyo) in dramas and songs which actually means i love you as well. The subject and object in the statement were dropped but the meaning stays the same. This is why the role of the verb in a sentence is important.
Of course creating a clear statement doesn’t end with knowing the word order. Although subject and object can be dropped in a sentence this should not be taken as a rule of thumb. In the Korean language post-position and markers are used to emphasize the role of the word in a sentence. Again using the example above 나 너를 사랑해요, 너 which means you is marked as object in the sentence without it the sentence would be vague since the subject 나 (i) is not marked.
Can you just imagine how it is to create a compound or complex sentence in Korean? I am not even at that level but I am trying =)
I really feel sorry for my self and for those who have been looking forward to new post that I cannot update more frequently. I have been constantly reading the new handbook I got authored by Samuel Martin called Practical Korean. It’s another book I just got from Powerbooks three weeks ago.
Since the creation of Elementary Korean is actually inspired by the the first edition of this book, the approach in explaining is somehow similar except that Practical Korean is using romanization heavily as opposed to Elementary Korean which uses romanization for pronunciation simulation purposes.
I found this lesson on the use of of the particle -도. Previously I learned that this is attached to a word (usually a noun) which gives meaning ‘too’ or ‘also’. Like when you say 나도 (nado), it means me too or me also. Previously this particle has been compared with it’s brother 또 (Ddo) which means the same but the difference is, its a stand alone word. It does not have to be connected to a noun.
Now I learned a practical application of the particle -도 in combination with the verbs 좋아요 (choayo) and 괜잖아요 (gwaenchanayo). 좋아요 means ‘is good’ or ‘to like’ while 괜잖아요 means ‘is okay’ or ‘to be alright’ or ‘makes no difference’. The particle is actually attached to the infinitive form of the verb, in present tense.
The use of -도 in combination with 좋아요 or 괜잖아요 gives the same meaning as the English statements that asks or gives permission in this thought flow:
- ‘is it okay if I…?
- ‘can i…?
- it is okay for you to…
- you can…
He are some examples:
내일 공부해도 좋아요? (Naeil kongbuhado choayo?) – Is it okay to study tomorrow?
여기 앉아도 괜잖아요 (Yogi anjado gwaenchanayo) – I don’t mind if you sit here. You can sit here
연필로 써도 좋아요 (Yeonpilro sseodeo chuayo) – You can write using pencil.
이 방에 계셔도 괜잖아요 (I bange kyesyeodo gwaenchanayo) – It’s okay for you to stay in this room.
I have been reading comments about this particle that is used to connect two noun. It actually means ‘and’ in English usage — like books and bags, music and lyrics etc. 미안해요. It’s my bad. I really had it interchanged, the book and also a Korean friend confirmed that -과 (gwa) is used after a consonant ending word while -와 (wa) is used after a vowel.
So for the those who have been asking questions about it 과 goes with the consonant and the book was right it was my eyes that is not.
This made me review the entire lesson on this particle. To recap, this particle is attached at the end of the noun or nouns used in a sentence like 연필과 종이와 책 (yeonpil-gwa, chongi-wa chaek). This means pencil, paper and book. If these nouns are used as topic in a sentence the topic marker -은/-는 will be added in the last noun, so in this case it would be 연필과 종이와 책은 (은 since 책 is ending in consonant).
Unlike the English counterpart this particle is pronounced as if part of the original word. The pause is after the particle as illustrated below:
- Korean: 연필과 <pause> 종이와 <pause> 책
- English: pencil<pause> and paper <pause> and books (this is just an illustration as we know that it is grammatically incorrect to use and over and over again in English for series. We use and before the last noun in the series and separate each word with just comma)
Another modifier I learned today is -는 which is similar to topic particle used for words ending in vowel. This new modifier is almost similar to -(으)ㄴexcept that it is specially used for processive verb.
This modifier doesn’t mind the final character of the word whether vowel or consonant it is directly added to a processive verb. Amazingly, unlike (으) ㄴ, this modifier cannot be used to descriptive verbs or adjectives. Here are examples of its application in certain processive verb:
- 만나는 (manneun) from 마나 (manna) which means meet
- 쓰는 (sseuneun) from 쓰(sseu) which means write
- 기다리는 (kidarineun) from 기다리 (kidari) which means wait for
- 가는 (kaneun) from 가 (ka) which means go
- 먹는 (meokneun) from 먹 (meok) which means eat
- 보는 (boneun) from 보 (bo) which means look
This modifier added in a processive verb placed before a noun has a present meaning, that someone is verbing or doing. This should somehow make this statement clear:
- 쓰는 사람 (Sseunen saram) –> the person who is writing
- 읽는 책 (ikneun chaek) –>the book that [he] is reading
- 걸는 선생님 (keolneun seonsaengnim) –> the teacher who is walking.
So obvisouly for descriptive verbal nouns which takes auxiliary verb 해요, one there is always the form descriptive verb+한 like this example: 깨끗한 방 (kkaekeuthan bang) would mean a room that is clean.
However, for a processive verbal nouns with 해요, the verb 하 functions as processive so it taked the modifier 는. Such as 산보하는 사람 (sanbohaneun saram) which means a person who is taking a walk. Comparing to the last modifier i learned -ㄴ when this is used on the example given –> 산보한 사람 (sanbohan saram) it now means a peron who took a walk. Its meaning becomes past.
Before ‘pasting’ the post below, something random happened. Yes I meant pasting because this post minus the first paragraph was posted 3 days ago in another blogsite that I am maintaining about my favorite Korean artist. Funny… I just realized today.
This post reminds me of an earlier topic I learned about saying ‘via’ or ‘by way’ or ‘through’. This particle that I am referring to is 로 (ro) but this time its the pattern:
noun(를/을) 통해(서) where the object particle in the noun is actually optional. 통해(서) attached to a noun which is optionally marked with object particle means through or by way of the ,noun>.
This pattern is typically used with nouns indicating sources of information like person, media sources, activities etc.
Here are some examples of the use of this pattern:
1. 친구를 통해서 만났어요. (Chingureul tonghaeso mannaseoyo). I met her through a friend.
2. 도서관을 통해서 받을 수가 있어요. (Dosogran tonghaeso padeul suga isseoyo) You can get it thorugh the library.
There are some idiomatic uses of the verb in infinitive form followed by particle 도 (do). Aside from its usual meaning of eventhough it can have a special meaning of minimum of maximum when used with selective descriptive verb.
- 늦어도 (nuejeodo) – which means ‘at the latest’ aside from the direct translation meaning of even though it’s late
- 적어도 (cheokeodo) – would mean ‘at least’ aside from the direct translation even though it’s few or small.
Here are samples of its use in a sentence:
- 여기서부터 약국까지 적어도 1시간은 걸리겠어요. (Yogiseobuto yakkuk kaji cheokeodo han shikaneun keollikesseoyo) From here to pharmacy it must take at least 1 hour.
- 늦어도 7시까지는 학교에 들어 가야 하거든요. (Neujeodo ilgop shikkajineun hakyeoe duero kaya hageodeunyo) We have to return to school by 7 o’clock at the latest.
Few days ago I learned how to express ‘ have to’ or ‘ I must do’ which is in the form of infinitive form of verb+ 야 해요. This time it’s about saying ‘I don’t have to’. It was not as simple as using the negative verb + 야 해요, instead for this expression, the negative verb + 도 is used. Using one of my favorite verbs, 먹다 (meokda – to eat) here are examples:
- Short negative – 안 먹어도 (an meokeodo)
- Long negative – 먹지 않아도 (mokji anado)
The above examples both mean even if I don’t eat. The final verb can be used are 돼요 (dwaeyo), 괜찮아요 (gwaenchanayo) or 좋아요 (choayo) to complete the thought — it doesn’t matter, it’s alright or it’s okay. Using the verb above here is a sample sentence construction:
오늘 밤에 먹지 않아도 괜찮아요. (Oneul bame mokji anado gwaenchanayo). Even if I don’t eat late tonight, it doesn’ t matter.
Yesterday I get to learn a sister of the verb+지만 construction which means but or although. This is verb+도 which also means even though, despite or inspite. They are the same in meaning but verb+도 means a little stronger than verb+지만.
One use of verb+도 is to ask and give permission. In English we normally ask or give permission by using the word ‘may I’ or ‘you may’. However in Korean its expressed literally as — even if I do this is it okay? This is how verb+도 play arole, the final verb can be a choice among these three:
- 돼요(dweyo – can)
- 좋아요 (choayo – is good or right) and
- 괜찮아요 (gwaenchanayo – is okay)
Here are some examples:
- 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 좋아요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo choayo?) Literally this means, is it okay for me to wear my new clothes today? However this simply means may I wear my new clother today?
- 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 괜찬아요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo gwaenchanayo?) Is it okay for me to wear my new clothes?
- 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 돼요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo dweyo?) Can i wear my new clothes today?
Happy Valentines! I know Koreans have White and Black day instead. I was not able to read yesterday and was too tired to get on-line after, so I only got the chance to read once again today.
Infinitive form of the verb followed by the particle 도 (do) means ‘even though such and such happens’. I met this particle back when I was reading Elementary Korean. It’s particle attached nouns to mean too. This time its attached to a verb and produces contrast in two phrases.
Here are some sample of its use when attached to verb in infinitive form:
- 내가 너무 일로 바뻐도, 가만히 나의 한국어 책을 읽어요 (Naega nomo ilro pappodo, naoui kamanhi hangugeo chaekeul ilkoyo). Eventhoug I am busy with work, I still read my Korean books.
- 가방이 비싸 있어도, 그것은 살 거에요 (Kabangi bissa isseodo, kukoseun sal koeyo). Even if the bag is expensive, I will probably buy it.
In using this particle with the first phrase of the sentence, there is no need to worry about the tense of the verb. The final verb of the sentence will handle it.
Expressing obligation in English is normally expressed with the use of have to, must, should or ought. This is usually done thorugh the pattern infinitive form of the verb+야 (ya) plus the verb 해요 (haeyo) or 돼요 (dweyo). 야 stands for only if so literally the pattern I provided means only if [someone] will do or become <verb>. However in the Korean context its just a simple way of saying someone is compelled or has to do something.
- 내일 친구를 만나야 해요. (Naeil chingureul mannaya haeyo). I need to meet a friend tomorrow.
의사의 충고로 많이 물을 마셔야 해요. (Ouisa chunggoro mureul masyeoya haeyo). I need to drink plenty of water through doctor’s advice.
도서관 안에서는 조용히 해야 돼요. (Doseogwan aneseonun choyonghi haeyoya dwaeyo) You have to be quiet inside the library.
There are other verbs which can be used in combination with infinitive verb + 야 like the following examples below: