Denying Obligation

Last time I learned how to express obligation by using the particle -야 (-ya) and 해요 (haeyo).   Now I learned how to deny such obligation something like the English expression ‘you don’t have to’ or ‘you may not’ or ‘you need not’.

This is not something really offensive, the tone is rather it’s all right even if <verb>.  The expression is formed by using a particle I just recently post, 도 (do) that is, added to a negative verb followed by 좋아요 (choayo), 돼요 dwaeyo) or 괜잖아요 (gwaenchanayo).   So it’s necessary to know first how negative verbs are formed to be able to make use of this new expression.

A quick recap verbs are made negative by adding 안 in front of it this is the short cut or the longer way which is verb+지 (ji)  않아요.

Here are examples of the practical use of this expression:

  • 밥을 안먹어도 괜잖아요. (Bapeul anmokodo gwaenchanayo) – It’s alright if you don’t eat the rice.
  • 내일 집에 가지 않아도 돼요.  (Jipe kaji anado dwaeyo).  You don’t have to go home tomorrow.
  • 아무선물을 가져오지 않아도 좋아요. (Amuseonmureul kajyeo.oji anado choayo).  It’s okay even if you don’t bring any gift.

Expressing Obligation with -야 해요

This new particle  I learned simulates the way English statements stress the need to do something from just doing it.  I will clean the room tomorrow is a  bit lax compared to saying I must clean the room tomorrow.  The latter sends out something like a higher level of   urgency or an obligation.    This ‘must’ or ‘need to’ message  I learned is expressed by using the particle -야 (-ya) then ending the statement with verb 해요 (haeyo).  The particle is attached to a verb’s infinitive form both for plain and honorific verbs.

  • 학교에 가야 해요 (Hakyoe kaya haeyo) – I need to go to school.
  • 내일 공부해야 해요 (Naeil gongbuhaeya haeyo) – I must study tomorrow.
  • 언니 이 책을 읽어야 해요 (Eonnie i chaekeul ilkoya haeyo) – My (older) sister needs to read this book.

야 attached to the verb gives it the ‘only if you <verb>” meaning and the 해요 as verb ending means ‘will do it’.  As such the combination of this particle and verb ending  therefore results to meaning  you have to <verb>.

나는  한국어 책을 읽어야 해요 =)

More Uses of 도 (Do)

I really feel sorry for my self and for those who have been looking forward to new post that I cannot update more frequently.  I have been constantly reading the new handbook I got authored by Samuel Martin called Practical Korean.  It’s another book I just got from Powerbooks  three weeks ago.

Since the creation of Elementary Korean is actually inspired by the the first edition of this book,  the approach in explaining is somehow similar except that Practical Korean is using romanization heavily as opposed to Elementary Korean which uses romanization for pronunciation simulation purposes.

I found this lesson on the use of  of the particle -도.  Previously I learned that this is attached to a word (usually a noun) which gives meaning  ‘too’ or ‘also’.  Like when you say 나도  (nado), it means me too or me also.  Previously this particle has been compared with it’s brother 또 (Ddo) which means the same but the difference is, its a stand alone word.  It does not have to be connected to a noun.

Now I learned a practical application of the particle -도 in combination with the verbs 좋아요  (choayo) and 괜잖아요 (gwaenchanayo).   좋아요 means ‘is good’ or ‘to like’ while 괜잖아요 means ‘is okay’ or ‘to be alright’ or ‘makes no difference’.  The particle is actually attached to the infinitive form of the verb, in present tense.

The use of -도 in combination with 좋아요 or 괜잖아요 gives the same meaning as the English statements that asks or gives permission in this thought flow:

  • ‘is it okay if I…?
  • ‘can i…?
  • it is okay for you to…
  • you can…

He are some examples:

내일 공부해도 좋아요? (Naeil kongbuhado choayo?) – Is it okay to study tomorrow?

여기 앉아도 괜잖아요 (Yogi anjado gwaenchanayo) – I don’t mind if you sit here.  You can sit here

연필로 써도 좋아요 (Yeonpilro sseodeo chuayo) – You can write using pencil.

이 방에 계셔도 괜잖아요 (I bange kyesyeodo gwaenchanayo) – It’s okay for you to stay in this room.