Some Special Use of Infinitive Verb + 도

There are some idiomatic uses of the verb in infinitive form followed by particle 도 (do).  Aside from its usual meaning of eventhough it can have a special meaning of minimum of maximum when used with selective descriptive verb.

  • 늦어도 (nuejeodo) – which means ‘at the latest’ aside from the direct translation meaning of even though it’s late
  • 적어도 (cheokeodo) – would mean ‘at least’  aside from the direct translation even though it’s few or small.

Here are samples of its use in a sentence:

  • 여기서부터 약국까지 적어도 1시간은 걸리겠어요. (Yogiseobuto yakkuk kaji cheokeodo han shikaneun keollikesseoyo) From here to pharmacy it must take at least 1 hour.
  • 늦어도 7시까지는 학교에 들어 가야 하거든요.  (Neujeodo ilgop shikkajineun hakyeoe duero kaya hageodeunyo) We have to return to school by 7 o’clock at the latest.

Expressing Doesn’t Have To

Few days ago I learned how to express ‘ have to’ or ‘ I must do’ which is in the form of  infinitive form of verb+ 야 해요.  This time it’s about saying ‘I don’t have to’.  It was not as simple as using the negative verb + 야 해요, instead for this expression, the negative verb + 도 is used.  Using one of my favorite verbs,  먹다 (meokda – to eat) here are examples:

  • Short negative – 안 먹어도 (an meokeodo)
  • Long negative – 먹지 않아도 (mokji anado)

The above examples both mean even if I don’t eat.  The final verb can be used are  돼요 (dwaeyo), 괜찮아요 (gwaenchanayo) or  좋아요 (choayo)  to complete the thought — it doesn’t matter, it’s alright or it’s okay.  Using the verb above here is a sample sentence construction:

오늘 밤에 먹지 않아도 괜찮아요.  (Oneul bame mokji anado gwaenchanayo). Even if I don’t eat late tonight, it doesn’ t matter.

Use of Verb+도 to Ask and Give Permission

Yesterday I get to learn a sister of the verb+지만 construction which means but or although.  This is verb+도 which also means even though, despite or inspite.  They are the same in meaning but verb+도 means a little stronger than verb+지만.

One use of verb+도 is to ask and give permission.  In English we normally ask or give permission by using the word ‘may I’ or ‘you may’.  However in Korean its expressed literally as — even if I do this is it okay?  This is how verb+도 play arole, the final verb can be a choice among these three:

  • 돼요(dweyo – can)
  • 좋아요 (choayo – is good or right) and  
  • 괜찮아요 (gwaenchanayo – is okay)

Here are some examples:

  • 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 좋아요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo choayo?) Literally this means, is it okay for me to wear my new clothes today?  However this simply means may I wear my new clother today?
  • 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 괜찬아요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo gwaenchanayo?)  Is it okay for me to wear my new clothes?
  • 오늘 새  옷을 입어도 돼요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo dweyo?) Can i wear my new clothes today?

Infinitive + 도

Happy Valentines! I know Koreans have White and Black day instead. I was not able to read yesterday and was too tired to get on-line after, so I only got the chance to read once again today.

Infinitive form of the verb followed by the particle 도 (do) means ‘even though such and such happens’. I met this particle back when I was reading Elementary Korean. It’s particle attached nouns to mean too. This time its attached to a verb and produces contrast in two phrases.

Here are some sample of its use when attached to verb in infinitive form:

  • 내가 너무 일로 바뻐도, 가만히 나의 한국어 책을 읽어요 (Naega nomo ilro pappodo, naoui kamanhi hangugeo chaekeul ilkoyo). Eventhoug I am busy with work, I still read my Korean books.
  • 가방이 비싸 있어도, 그것은 살 거에요 (Kabangi bissa isseodo, kukoseun sal koeyo). Even if the bag is expensive, I will probably buy it.

In using this particle with the first phrase of the sentence, there is no need to worry about the tense of the verb.  The final verb of the sentence will handle it.

Expressing Obligation using 야

Expressing obligation in English is normally expressed with the use of  have to, must, should or ought.   This is usually done thorugh the pattern infinitive form of the verb+야 (ya) plus the verb 해요 (haeyo) or 돼요 (dweyo).  야 stands for only if so literally the pattern I provided means only if [someone] will do or become <verb>.  However in the Korean context its just a simple way of saying someone is compelled or has to do something.

  • 내일 친구를 만나야 해요.  (Naeil chingureul mannaya haeyo).  I need to meet a friend tomorrow.
  • 의사의 충고로 많이 물을 마셔야 해요. (Ouisa chunggoro mureul masyeoya haeyo).  I need to drink plenty of water through doctor’s advice. 
  • 도서관 안에서는 조용히 해야 돼요.  (Doseogwan aneseonun choyonghi haeyoya dwaeyo)   You have to be quiet inside the library.

There are other verbs which can be used in combination with  infinitive verb + 야  like the following examples below:

  • 돈이 있어야 들어가요.  (Doni isseoya deurogayo) You need money to get in.
  • 사장한테 물어봐야 알겠어요. (Sajanghante mureobwaya algesseoyo).  We will be able to understand by asking the boss.

Another Use of 기 with 전에

I am getting pretty excited each day reading my Continuing Korean although i am beginning to think there are some wrong references probably due to some proofreading errors, I find the new lessons very enriching.

I have been using this word 전에 (chone) which I know means before but little did I realize it can be used with plain base in 기 form to mean before [someone] does or did or will do.  The format is absolute its plain base in 기 + 전에.  I said it’s absolute because the tenses are handled at the end of the sentence or the final verb.

Here are some examples:

  • 노래방에 가기 전에 수업을 공부했어요. (Noraebange kagi chone sueopeul kongbuhaesseoyo)  I studied my lesson before going to karaoke.
  • 노래방에 가기 전에 수업을 공부할 거에요. (Noraebange kagi chone sueopeul kongbuhal keoeyo).  I will probably study my lesson [first] before going to karaoke.
  • 조안이 자기 전에 우유를 마셔요. (Joan.i chagi chone uyureul masyeoyo) Joan drink you milk before sleeping.

Any Base of Verb + 기 때문에

A new phrase I learned today is still in relation to verb in -기 form.  This is, as the title of the post says, any base + 기 때문에 (ki ddaemune) would mean by reason of , or because one does/is or did/was or will do/will be.  

The Korean word 때문에 right before a noun means ‘because of the noun’.  As i previously learned 기 added to a verb base makes it ‘noun-like’.  So it’s just but logical that anybase of the verb followed by 기 and 때문에 would mean the same.  Here is an example: 

학교 때문에 못 갔어요. (Hakyo daemune mot kasseoyo). Because of school I was not able to go.  학교 is the noun which as we all know is school.

Here are examples using any base of the verb+ 기 때문에.  The 기 in the verb does it, so it technically means  because of ‘noun-like’:

  • 오늘 떠나기 때문에 파티에 못 가겠어요.  (Oneul ddonagi  ddaemune pati.e mot kakesseoyo). Because I am leaving today, I won’t be able to go to the party.
  • 비가 왔기 때문에 방학이 재미 없었어요. (Biga owattgi ddaemune banghaki chaemi opseosseoyo)  My vacation wasn’t fun because it rained.
  • 당신은 이것이 읽기 때문에 행복해요 (Dangsineun ikoshi  ikki ddaemune haengbokhaeyo).  I am happy because you are reading this.

Another Use of -기 Form

Another use of verb in -기 form is the pattern –> plain base+ 기 시작하-.  This means ‘begins to do’ or ‘begins doing’.  A plain base + 기 form with or without direct object particle 를 and the verb 시작해요 which means begins.  Here are some examples:

  • 비가 오기 시작해요 (Biga ogi shijakhaeyo) It’s beginning to rain.
  • 야재를 먹기 시작했어요 (Yachaereul mokki shijakhaesseoyo) I started to eat vegetables.
  • 한국말은 언제부터 배우기 시작하셨어요? (Hankukmareun onjebuteo baeugi shijakhasyeosseoyo?) [Since]  When did you start learning Korean?

This pattern is used only with processive verbs.   For adjectives or descriptive verbs,  there is another way to say it without using the verb in 기 form.  The formula is to use descriptive verb in infinitive form + auxiliary very  져요 (jyeoyo) which means begins to be.  This will be further discussed in suceeding lessons of the book so I am leaving this topic for now.

Uses of Verbs in -기 Form

Yesterday, I learned a new verb form with the use of -기 also known as verb in nominalizer form.  Such results into a nounlike words and in fact they behave like nouns do as follows:

  • followed by a particle
  • modifying a following noun
  • in adverbial position – in contruction where particle has been dropped

Nominalizer forms allows you take an entire sentence; convert it into one big noun and then use this noun into subject, object or some other part of the larger sentence. Here is an example of incorporation of -기 form into larger sentence:

영행을 하기를 좋아해요. (Yeonghaengeul hagireul choahaeyo) I love to travel.

In the sentence above there are two objects, the one within the -기 clause and one in the -기 clause it self.  One of the object particles can be dropped or both and th sentence would still mean the same as shown below:

  • [영행을 하기]를 좋아해요
  • [영행을 하기] 좋아해요
  • [영행 하기] 좋아해요

So this lesson is another discovery for me on how verbs can be made noun which my former language exchange partner has been telling me but could not articulate it very well.  These are some of the other expressions which make use of the nominalizer form:

  • 듣기 싫어요 (Deudgi sirheoyo) – I hate to listen or I don’t want to hear about it.  This expression also corresponds to ‘What an awful thing to hear’ or ‘Must you say such thing?’
  • 보기 싫어요 (Bogi sirheoyo) – I hate to see that. This expression on the other hand corresponds to ‘How disgusting to see’ or ‘that makes me sick’

New Page: Reference Materials

안녕하세요. 웹사이트를 방문해서 고마워요!

I added a new page on this website entitled — Reference Materials.  I will be putting in here the books that I have and give some sort of review about it.  So far my Berlitz Korean Compact dictionary is a staple (got to have one if you are serious about learning).  I am likewise done reading Elementary Korean so I finally made a summary on what’s in it for someone who will buy the book.

Thanks again to those who continue to visit and leave comment, i appreciate it.

제인