No Post for 2 Days

I was out of town for two days and I missed posting during those times.  So I am trying to catch up with my readings and learnings.

내가 세부에 가기 때문에 포스트를 없었어요. 그리고 미안해요.

져 in Other Forms

The  auxiliary verb 져요 turns a descriptive verb in infinitive form into something that means get or become.  Aside from the plain infinitive form, this auxilliary verb can be attached to verbs in other forms as shown below using 나빠요 (is worse or is bad):

  • 나빠졌어요 (nappajyeosseoyo) – got worse or got bad.  Yes, the past indicator is added after the auxiliary form.
  • 나빠질 거에요 (nappajil keo.eyo) – will get hot.  Note that it’s not 져  but rather 지 because as mentioned in previous post future from is normally added on plain base so in this case 져 becomes 지 since its just an abbreviation of 지어요.
  • 나빠지지만 (nappajijiman) – gets hot, but. 
  • 나빠질 까요? (nappajil kkayo?)  – do you suppose it will get hot? 

From this, I am thinking that when the verbs taking the 져 form should be taken as the one compound verb itself such that any rules in changing its form whether it be past, future or other applicable verb endings will be followed with consideration of compound verb ending  as either 지  or 져.

So even for the auxiliary verb 고 싶어, 져 can be used.  The meaning becomes ‘gets to want to do <verb>’.   Altogether the form becomes plain base+고 싶어져요.

Get or Become with Verb+져요

Another useful auxiliary verb I have learned today is 져요 (jyeoyo) which means begins to be or gets (to be) when added to a verb in  infinitive form.  It is actually an abbreviation of 지어요 (jieoyo).

It is added to descriptive verbs in infinitive form to form a processive verb compound.  Here are some examples:

  • 좋아요 (choayo) is good –> 좋아져요 (choajyeo) gets/becomes better
  • 나빠요 (nappayo) is bad –> 나빠져요 (nappajyeoyo) gets/becomes worse
  • 바뻐요 (bappeoyo) is busy –> 바뻐져요 (bappeojyeoyo) gets/becomes busy
  • 더워요 (deowoyo) is hot –> 더워져요 (deowojyeoyo) gets hot, warms up

Similar to particles, the auxiliary verb 져요 when added should be spelled without space making it part of the entire word.

Some Special Use of Infinitive Verb + 도

There are some idiomatic uses of the verb in infinitive form followed by particle 도 (do).  Aside from its usual meaning of eventhough it can have a special meaning of minimum of maximum when used with selective descriptive verb.

  • 늦어도 (nuejeodo) – which means ‘at the latest’ aside from the direct translation meaning of even though it’s late
  • 적어도 (cheokeodo) – would mean ‘at least’  aside from the direct translation even though it’s few or small.

Here are samples of its use in a sentence:

  • 여기서부터 약국까지 적어도 1시간은 걸리겠어요. (Yogiseobuto yakkuk kaji cheokeodo han shikaneun keollikesseoyo) From here to pharmacy it must take at least 1 hour.
  • 늦어도 7시까지는 학교에 들어 가야 하거든요.  (Neujeodo ilgop shikkajineun hakyeoe duero kaya hageodeunyo) We have to return to school by 7 o’clock at the latest.

Expressing Doesn’t Have To

Few days ago I learned how to express ‘ have to’ or ‘ I must do’ which is in the form of  infinitive form of verb+ 야 해요.  This time it’s about saying ‘I don’t have to’.  It was not as simple as using the negative verb + 야 해요, instead for this expression, the negative verb + 도 is used.  Using one of my favorite verbs,  먹다 (meokda – to eat) here are examples:

  • Short negative – 안 먹어도 (an meokeodo)
  • Long negative – 먹지 않아도 (mokji anado)

The above examples both mean even if I don’t eat.  The final verb can be used are  돼요 (dwaeyo), 괜찮아요 (gwaenchanayo) or  좋아요 (choayo)  to complete the thought — it doesn’t matter, it’s alright or it’s okay.  Using the verb above here is a sample sentence construction:

오늘 밤에 먹지 않아도 괜찮아요.  (Oneul bame mokji anado gwaenchanayo). Even if I don’t eat late tonight, it doesn’ t matter.

Use of Verb+도 to Ask and Give Permission

Yesterday I get to learn a sister of the verb+지만 construction which means but or although.  This is verb+도 which also means even though, despite or inspite.  They are the same in meaning but verb+도 means a little stronger than verb+지만.

One use of verb+도 is to ask and give permission.  In English we normally ask or give permission by using the word ‘may I’ or ‘you may’.  However in Korean its expressed literally as — even if I do this is it okay?  This is how verb+도 play arole, the final verb can be a choice among these three:

  • 돼요(dweyo – can)
  • 좋아요 (choayo – is good or right) and  
  • 괜찮아요 (gwaenchanayo – is okay)

Here are some examples:

  • 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 좋아요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo choayo?) Literally this means, is it okay for me to wear my new clothes today?  However this simply means may I wear my new clother today?
  • 오늘 새 옷을 입어도 괜찬아요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo gwaenchanayo?)  Is it okay for me to wear my new clothes?
  • 오늘 새  옷을 입어도 돼요? (Oneul sae oseul ipeodo dweyo?) Can i wear my new clothes today?

Infinitive + 도

Happy Valentines! I know Koreans have White and Black day instead. I was not able to read yesterday and was too tired to get on-line after, so I only got the chance to read once again today.

Infinitive form of the verb followed by the particle 도 (do) means ‘even though such and such happens’. I met this particle back when I was reading Elementary Korean. It’s particle attached nouns to mean too. This time its attached to a verb and produces contrast in two phrases.

Here are some sample of its use when attached to verb in infinitive form:

  • 내가 너무 일로 바뻐도, 가만히 나의 한국어 책을 읽어요 (Naega nomo ilro pappodo, naoui kamanhi hangugeo chaekeul ilkoyo). Eventhoug I am busy with work, I still read my Korean books.
  • 가방이 비싸 있어도, 그것은 살 거에요 (Kabangi bissa isseodo, kukoseun sal koeyo). Even if the bag is expensive, I will probably buy it.

In using this particle with the first phrase of the sentence, there is no need to worry about the tense of the verb.  The final verb of the sentence will handle it.