Compound Verbs with 있어요

Yesterday the compound verbs I got to confirm and learn has something to do with  가 ( ka) and 와 (wa).  This time its one of my overly used verb 있다 (itta) the dictionary form which means to exist, is or stays.  

Just like yesterday’s lesson, it’s verb + this verb, 있어요 (isseoyo) equals resultant state.  Here are some examples of compound verbs where 있어요 acts as auxiliary verb to arrive in a resultant state:

앉아 (anja) sit 앉아 있어요 (anja isseoyo) Is seated 
닫혀 (dachyeo) close 닫혀 있어요 (dachyeo isseoyo) Is closed
들어 (deuro) enter or go into 들어 있어요 (deuro isseoyo Is contained
열려 (yeollyeo) open 열려 있어요 (yeollyeo isseoyeo) Is open

These compound verb expressions can be turned into negative by adding 지 않아요 (-지 않아요) to 있다 (Note:  Remembering the long negatives) So the expression ‘is not seated’ will be 앉아 있지 않아요 (anja ittji anayo). 

Examples in sentence use:

  • 약국이 아직도 닫혀 있어요? ( Yakkuki ajikdo dachyeo isseoyo?) Is the pharmacy still closed?
  • 언제 새 도서관이 열려 있어요?  (Onje sae dosogwani yeollyeo isseoyo?) When is the new library open?

I love how useful the word 있다.  A caution is provided in the book, it says there is a different pattern when the resultant state ha something to do with wearing.  instead of the verb + 있어요,  the -고 form is used + 있어요. As such to say ‘Father is wearing a necktie’  one would say 아버지가 넥타이를 매고 있으세요 (Abeojika nektaireul maego isseuseyo).