Another Modifier -는

Another modifier I learned today is -는 which is similar to topic particle used for words ending in vowel.  This new modifier is almost similar to -(으)ㄴexcept that it is specially used for processive verb. 

This modifier doesn’t mind the final character of the word whether vowel or consonant it is directly added to a processive verb.  Amazingly, unlike (으) ㄴ, this modifier cannot be used to descriptive verbs or adjectives.  Here are examples of its  application in certain processive verb:

  • 만나는 (manneun) from 마나 (manna) which means meet
  • 쓰는 (sseuneun) from 쓰(sseu)  which means write
  • 기다리는 (kidarineun) from 기다리 (kidari) which means  wait for
  • 가는 (kaneun) from 가 (ka) which means go
  • 먹는 (meokneun)  from 먹 (meok) which means eat
  • 보는 (boneun) from 보 (bo) which means look

This modifier added in a processive verb placed before a noun has a present meaning, that someone is verbing or doing.  This should somehow make this statement clear:

  • 쓰는 사람 (Sseunen saram) –> the person who is writing
  • 읽는 책 (ikneun chaek) –>the book that [he] is reading
  • 걸는 선생님 (keolneun seonsaengnim) –> the teacher who is walking.

So obvisouly for descriptive verbal nouns which takes auxiliary verb 해요,  one there is always the form descriptive verb+한 like this example: 깨끗한 방 (kkaekeuthan bang) would mean a room that is clean. 

However, for a processive verbal nouns with 해요, the verb 하 functions as processive so it taked the modifier 는. Such as 산보하는 사람 (sanbohaneun saram) which means a person who is taking a walk.  Comparing to the last modifier i learned -ㄴ when this is used on the example given –> 산보 사람 (sanbohan saram) it now means a peron who took a walk. Its meaning becomes past.

Expressing ‘Through’ or ‘By Way Of’

Before ‘pasting’ the post below, something random happened.  Yes I meant pasting because this post minus the first paragraph was posted 3 days ago in another blogsite that I am maintaining about my favorite Korean artist. Funny… I just realized today.

This post reminds me of an earlier topic I learned about saying ‘via’ or ‘by way’ or ‘through’.  This particle that I am referring to is 로 (ro) but this time its the pattern:

noun(를/을) 통해(서) where the object particle in the noun is actually optional.  통해(서) attached to a noun which is optionally marked with object particle means through or by way of the ,noun>.

This pattern is typically used with nouns indicating sources of information like person, media sources, activities etc.

Here are some examples of the use of this pattern:

1.  친구를 통해서  만났어요. (Chingureul tonghaeso mannaseoyo). I met her through a friend.

2.  도서관을 통해서 받을 수가 있어요. (Dosogran tonghaeso padeul suga isseoyo)  You can get it thorugh the library.

Uses of Clause Modifier (으)ㄴ

The simple modifier (으) ㄴ has two major functions in relation to the type of verb to which it is attached.   First, when attached to a descriptive verb or adjective and then placed before a noun, it becomes noun that is equal to adjective.  Here are some examples:

  • 큰 학교 (Keun Hakkyo) – Large school
  • 적은 눈물 (Cheokeun Nunmul) – Few tears
  • 좋은 사람 (CheounSaram) –  Good Man

The second use is that when it is attached to processive verb right before a noun it takes a past meaning.  Something like [someone] did or  has done as shown on samples below:

  • 앉은 사람  (Anjeun saram) – The person who sat or who has sat.  This is lifted from statement –> 사람이 앉었어요 (Sarami anjeosseoyo)
  • 걸은 여자 (Keoreun yoja) – The lady who walked –> 여자가 걸었어요 (Yojaga keoreoseoyo).

Since this form for processive verbs takes a past tense meaning, therefore, this modifier can neither be attached to past base nor future base.  As such you would hear or see 썼은 편지 (Sseosseun pyonji) written letter or 써겠은 편지 (Sseokesseun pyonji) letter that we/I will write.

Introduction to Modifiers

Just like English, the Korean language has its way of turning a sentence into  a clause that modifies a noun  or a noun phrase.  This is done by changing the final verb of the statement into the modifier form.  For to day, I am introduced to the (으)ㄴ  modifier.  Just like the subject and object particles the rules in adding this modifier are as follows:

  • Plain base of verb ending in vowel + ㄴ
  • Plain base of verb ending in consonant + 은

Below are some examples of verbs in modifier form:

앉은 Anjeun Sit
만난 Manan Meet
좋은 Choneun Be Good
기다린 Kidarin Wait
Gan Go

The following verb types are exceptions.  For L-extending verbs, the modifier is attached to the un-extended form as shown below:

산 (사-ㄹ) San Live
논 (노-ㄹ) Non Play
연 (여-ㄹ) Yeon Open

For w (우) type of verbs below are sample transitions:

도운 (도w-) Doun Help
구운 (구w-) Kuun Boil
더운 (더 w-) Deoun Hot

Another Way to Say ‘And’

There are  four ways that I learned to express ‘and’ in Korean.  One  is through particles 과/와  (gwa/wa) which is used to connect nouns, 과 attached to noun ending in vowel while 와 for consonant.  The two other particles are 하고 and (이)랑 or hago and (i)rang as Romanized. Although 하고 can also mean with it also means and.  The last one is used to connect ideas, phrases or clauses by attaching -고 (-ko) to verb which I have more recent post about.

This time I am introduced to another two shape ending which function the same as above is -(으)며 or (eu) myeo. It can be compared to the one shape ending -고 (-go) however (으) 며 is more bookish, it is not used in spoken Korean.   Also, this two shape ending is limited to mean and or sometimes while but never as the other functions -고.

Here is an example:

오늘은 비가 와 내일도 비가 오고 추울 거에요. (Oneureun biga wamyeo naeildo biga ogo chuwoyo.) Today it’s raining, and tomorrow it will be raining and cold too.

When  (으)며 is added to a verb that is considered as l-extending like the word 살 (sal), the l is retained.  I have noticed this pattern to be true for all two shape particles; the l-extending verbs keep the ‘l’.

More Use of (으)ㄹ 수 있어요/없어요

The expression plain base+ㄹ 수 있어요 or 없어요 which means can or cannot <verb> also corresponds to the meaning of plain verb expression whether positive or negative.  Only, the pattern conveys possiblity and or ability.

The expression ㄹ 수 없어요  (-l su opseoyo) also means the same as the negative expression 못 followed by verb as in the case of 갈 수 없어요 (kal su opseoyo) is the same as 못 가요 (mot kayo); the first expression meaning cannot go and the second one emphatically means cannot go (sure that the person cannot go).

Here are some applications of this verb ending:

1.  내일 후에 시험  집에 갈 수 있어요. (Naeil hue shiheom jipe kal su isseoyo).  I can go home tomorrow after the exam.

2.  오늘 아침 도서관에 올 수 있어요? (Oneul achim dosogwane ol su isseoyo?) Can you come to the library this morning?

3.  새 가방이 볼 수 있어요? ( Sae kabangi bol su isseoyo) Can i see the new bag?

4.  동생이  파티에 갈 수 없어요. (Dongsaengi pati.e kal su opseoyo) My younger brother cannot go to the party.

5.  내가  바뻐서, 이메일 답장을  보낼 수 없어요. (Naega papposo, email dapjangi bonael su opseoyo)  I cannot send my email reply because I am busy.

Expressing Can and Cannot Do

The expression can or cannot do in Korean is made using the pattern plain base+ (으)ㄹ 수 then 있어요 (isseoyo) or 없어요 (opseoyo).  This verb ending literally means ‘ a means exists’ or ‘a means do not exists’.   Here are examples:

  • 볼 수 있어요 (bol su isseoyo) can [I/we] see
  • 쓸 수 있어요 (seul su isseoyo) can write or can use
  • 걸을 수 없어요 (keoreul su opseoyo) can’t walk
  • 갈 수 없어요 (kal su opseoyo) can’t go

The behavior is the same as that of the verb ending for probable future (으)ㄹ 거에요 (eu0l koeyo) where l-extending verbs remains unextended when the attached as such:

살다 (to live) is transformed to 살 수 없어요 (sal su opseoyo) to mean can’t live.  살 in this form  is actually 사 (unextended form)+ ㄹ (the modifier in the verb ending).

No Post for 2 Days

I was out of town for two days and I missed posting during those times.  So I am trying to catch up with my readings and learnings.

내가 세부에 가기 때문에 포스트를 없었어요. 그리고 미안해요.

져 in Other Forms

The  auxiliary verb 져요 turns a descriptive verb in infinitive form into something that means get or become.  Aside from the plain infinitive form, this auxilliary verb can be attached to verbs in other forms as shown below using 나빠요 (is worse or is bad):

  • 나빠졌어요 (nappajyeosseoyo) – got worse or got bad.  Yes, the past indicator is added after the auxiliary form.
  • 나빠질 거에요 (nappajil keo.eyo) – will get hot.  Note that it’s not 져  but rather 지 because as mentioned in previous post future from is normally added on plain base so in this case 져 becomes 지 since its just an abbreviation of 지어요.
  • 나빠지지만 (nappajijiman) – gets hot, but. 
  • 나빠질 까요? (nappajil kkayo?)  – do you suppose it will get hot? 

From this, I am thinking that when the verbs taking the 져 form should be taken as the one compound verb itself such that any rules in changing its form whether it be past, future or other applicable verb endings will be followed with consideration of compound verb ending  as either 지  or 져.

So even for the auxiliary verb 고 싶어, 져 can be used.  The meaning becomes ‘gets to want to do <verb>’.   Altogether the form becomes plain base+고 싶어져요.

Get or Become with Verb+져요

Another useful auxiliary verb I have learned today is 져요 (jyeoyo) which means begins to be or gets (to be) when added to a verb in  infinitive form.  It is actually an abbreviation of 지어요 (jieoyo).

It is added to descriptive verbs in infinitive form to form a processive verb compound.  Here are some examples:

  • 좋아요 (choayo) is good –> 좋아져요 (choajyeo) gets/becomes better
  • 나빠요 (nappayo) is bad –> 나빠져요 (nappajyeoyo) gets/becomes worse
  • 바뻐요 (bappeoyo) is busy –> 바뻐져요 (bappeojyeoyo) gets/becomes busy
  • 더워요 (deowoyo) is hot –> 더워져요 (deowojyeoyo) gets hot, warms up

Similar to particles, the auxiliary verb 져요 when added should be spelled without space making it part of the entire word.