The polite verb ending 요 is versitile that it can be used to express statement, question, command or suggestion. The classic example, 가 (Ga which mean go) have the same form when used in varying form of expression.
- 가요 (Gayo) – Let’s go
- 가요? – Let’s go?
- 가요! – Let’s go!
So in negative expression, 가 can be formed and would mean not going in these ways:
- Both would mean ‘not going’
- 안 가요 (an gayo)
- 가지 않아요 (gaji anhayo)
- All below would mean aren’t you going?
- 안 가세요? (an gaseyo? — used with esteemed person)
- 안 가요? (an gayo?)
- 가지 않으세요? (gaji anhuseyo?)
- 가지 않아요? (gaji anhayo?)
However in a negative command, it is not right to say 가지 않아요! A negative command or suggestion uses an auxilliary verb 마-ㄹ (ma-l), an L-extending verb. As such to say don’t go would be:
- 가지 마세요 (Gaji maseyo, drops ㄹ when followed by consonant) used with esteemed person
- 가지 말아요 (Gaji marayo)
- 가지 마십시오 (Gaji mashipshiyo) honorific formal style – command
- 가지 마십시다 (Gaji mashipshida) honorific formal style – suggestion, note that removal of 십 will make the statement very authoritative.