Wrap up of Particles: Ways to Say ‘Together With’

This lesson of the book ‘Elementary Korean’  thought me how to say together with in different ways using some of the past particles that I have learned.  These words mean together 함께 (hamkke) and 같이 (kati) although the latter could also mean like. 

Before this, I have learned that 이랑/랑 (irang/rang), 하고 (hago) and 과/와 (gwa/wa) have the same use as particles. It means with although 하고 could also mean ‘and’.  Since these are particles, when are added in a noun, it forms part of the word as if one (single word).  Again as mentioned in my previous post, particles are pronounced without a pause when combined with another word.

For today, I have learened the various ways to say together with.  For the phrase ‘together with a friend’ below are the ways to say this:

  • 친구랑 함께  (chingurang hamkke)
  • 친구하고 함께 (chinguhago hamkke)
  • 친구과 함께 (chingugwa hamkke)
  • 친구랑 같이 (chingurang kati)
  • 친구하고 같이 (chinguhago kati)
  • 친구과 같이 (chingugwa kati)

So looking at it, these phrases actually have the same formula noun+particle for ‘with’ then hamkke or kati. 

Particles 와 and 과

Another new particle to learn 와 (wa) and 과 (gwa).   It is important to know particles in Korean because aside from its grammatical function it will also help you deduce the word in a sentence and find what it exactly means.  Since particles are connected to the word and are pronunced as if part of the word, for someone who is just beginning to learn Korean words and reading them in Hangul, it is difficult to check on word meaning.  Just take 나 (na) which means me or mine, when particles like 는 (topic marker) or 를 (object marker) is added to it, looking at it first time would give you an impression that 나는 and  나를 are two different words.

The particles 와 and 과 functions like 하고 (hago)and 이랑 (irang), although the last two are more colloquial in use.  와 added after vowel ending word while 과 for consonant ending words.


  • 책과 연필 (chaek-gwa yonpil) – book and pencil
  • 가방과 안경 (gabang-gwa ankyong) – bag and glasses
  • 치마와 신발 (chima-wa shinbal) – skirt and shoes
  • 의자와 상 (uija-wa sang) – chair and table

If the phase has to be taken as subject or object in a sentence then the phrase is marked on the last word.  Example:

공책 연필  주세요 (Gongchaek-wa yonpireul juseyo) Please give me a notebook and pencil, where notebook and pencil is the object of the verb ‘juseyo’ (please give). If you could notice 공책과 or gongchaekwa is something that you will not see in your Korean-English dictionary, because dictionaries will normally have 공책 or gongchaek as entry.  This is similar to yonpil which becomes yonpireul, the character ‘ㄹ’ which is a sound between l and r becomes more of an ‘r’ sound when the particle 을 is added.  This is one of the nuisances of Hangul pronunciation.  

Verb: Honorific Past Tense

Few days ago my posting is about past tense form of word.  As we all know Korean communicates in some level of politeness.  Today what I have learned is to form honorific past tense of a word.  It would be helpful to know how to derive the honorific base and infinitive of the word first, check this link to review it.

Similar to previous post on forming past tense of the word, the honorific past tense is derived using the same progression:

  • Base
  • Honorific Base – formed by adding 으시 (consonant ending words) or 시 (vowel ending words) to the base form.
  • Honorific Infinitive – formed by adding ㅓ to the base honorific form therefore 으시 becomes 으셔 and 시 becomes 셔.
  • Past Honorific Base – add ㅆ to the honorific infinitive form 
  • Past Honorific Infinitive – add ㅓ  to the past honorific base
  • Past Honorific Polite  – add 요  to the past honorific infinitive

Now let’s have a sample:

  • Base – let’s use the word 가 (ka) which means go
  • Honorific Base – 가시 (kashi)
  • Honorific Infinitive – 가셔 (kasyeo)
  • Past Honorific Base – 가셨 (kasyeoss) remember final consonant ㅅ and ㅆ are swallowed during pronunciation therefore the honorific infinitive and past honorific base may have the same pronunciation.
  • Past Honorific Infinitive – 가셨어 (ka-syeo-sseo) this already means gone or left
  • Past Honorific Polite  – 가셨어요 (ka-syeo-sseo-yo)

Therefore ‘sat’ which is the past tense of the word ‘sit’ will be 앉으셨어 (an-ju-syeo-seo) add 요 then it becomes honorific polite ending verb 앉으셨어요 (an-ju-syeo–seo-yo).

Verbs: Forming Past Tense

For the longest time, i have been reading and studying Korean words and grammar in present tense.  At this point I finally reached the lesson on past tense.  Forming the past tense of a verb is easy, it’s the infinitive form of the verb + ㅆ to get the verb’s past tense base form.  As we all know base form of the word is not used in a conversation so its has to be in the infinitive form (for intimate conversation) or in the infinitive form + polite ending 요 (yo).

To show how verbs will progress its form to past tense here is a sample:

  • Base Form – 쓰 (ssu) this verb means write
  • Infinitive form – 써 (sseo) rule in deriving infinitive form of  verb ending in ‘ㅡ’ (u sound in English) is to drop it (ㅡ) and add the infinitive marker ㅓ.
  • Past Base Form – 썼 (sseoss) simply add ㅆ after the infinitive marker to get the past base form.
  • Past Infinitive – 썼어 (sseo-sseo) again the past base form cannot be used in a conversation so it is always followed by 어 to get the past infinitive form, this way the word can be used already during intimate conversation (talking to someone younger than you).
  • Past Polite – 썼어요 (sseo-sseo-yo) this is the polite ending.

 Let’s have another example:

오  (ow) is the base form of the word come.  To get the infinitive form of this word, ㅏ (a) should be added, based on the rules on forming infinitive of verbs ending ㅗ, thus 와 (wa).  This is therefore the present tense form which can be used on intimate conversation.  Past tense base form of the word will be 왔 (romanizing the word it becomes wass, ㅅ is normally swallowed or not pronounced if used as final consonant so this will still sound wa).  왔 already means came but since this can’t be used on a normal conversation you have to derive its past infinitive form therefore the word ‘came’ in Korean is 왔어 (wasseo) just add 요 (yo) then you have the polite ending verb 왔어요 (wasseoyo).

I have old postings on deriving the infinitive form of a word check it out here.


As we all learned in our English 101, adverb describes how, where or when something is done.  It provides additional description on the manner, time or place of action.  This word function does not change in learning Korean.

I guess learning adjectives is likewise an introduction to a bit more complex Korean sentences.  So here are some of the adverbs I have learned:

  • Adverb of Time –  이찍 (iljjik) or early; 나중에 (najung.e) or later; 아긱 (ajik) or yet
  • Adverb of Place – 게다가 (kedaga) or besides~<place>; 가까이 (kakka.i) or near; 멀리 (mollie) or far
  • Adverb ofDegree – 잘 (chal) or well; 너무 (nomu) or too/very; 
  • Adverb of Manner – 빨리 (palli) or fast/quickly; 천천히 (chonchon.hi) or slowly; 흔자 (hunja) or alone/by oneself.

I think the fourth type will be the most challenging to learn as it will surely confuse a beginner like me in differentiating adverb from adjective but one thing is for sure Adverb will never become a subject/topic or object in a sentence so this will never be marked with particles 이/가; 은/는 and 을/를.

Verbal Nouns: Processive

So we know that nouns can act as verb in a sentece, well this happens both in English and Korean language.  For the purpose of this post, verbal nouns (or nouns that acts as verb in sentence) can be further categorized as Processive or Descriptive.   This somehow clears some of the questions I have on verbs and nouns in Korean.

Let’s deal with Processive Verbal Nouns first.  These are the type where the verbal noun can be separated from the versatile verb 하 (ha which means does/ performs action or says/speak.  So literally its verbal noun + verb 하 (infinitive form is 해 for intimate conversation or 해요 as polite verb ending).

Let’s use the example 구경 (kukyong which means watches or views).  This is an example of a processive noun and can be expressed in these ways:

  • 구경해요 – kukyeonghaeyo or
  • 구경을 해요 – kukyeongeul haeyo, where 구경을 becomes an object of the verb 해.

The same pattern will be true for verbal nouns such as 일 (il or work), 청소 (cheongso or clean), 확인 (hwag.in or check) etc.

  • 일(을) 해 – ireul hae or ilhae 
  • 청소(를) 해 – cheongsoreul hae or cheongsohae
  • 확인(을) 해 – hwakineul hae or hwakinhae

I used to think 해 is something optional and wasn’t really clear on when to use it and when not.  This lesson in the book explains it.  Got to read Descriptive Verbal Nouns now.