Few months ago I only know that Korean words have dictionary form and there is a base word something that I associate with rootword in English however it seems base word is not necessarily used in conversation or usual communication. This holds true for dictionary form of the word. Still on lesson 7 of Elementary Korean, I have learned that Korean verbs have infinitive form. I really didn’t get why it is called infinitive but readers of the book have been cautioned on taking the term infinitive into English language context.
What I clearly understood is that the infinitive form can actually stand as the statement or expression already. In most use, it ends with 요 (yo) to make it polite so dropping this ending and other honorific marker will translate the communication in the intimate form (communication in Korean has various degree or level depending on who you are talking too).
Briefly verb’s infinitive form usually ends in ~ㅏor ~ㅓ depending on the last character of the base word if its consonant or vowel ending. This lesson reminds me of the particles which is added on noun.
Consonant ending verbs normally will add ~ㅓ to make the infinitive form but with exceptions. If the last vowel of the verb is ㅗ orㅏ, instead of ㅓ, the letter to be added will beㅏ. Here is a sample:
작 (to be small in size) –> 작아
좋 (to be good) –> 좋아
In most cases 어 will be added like in the verb 없 (indicate non existence) will turn to 없어 and so is for 있 (indicate existence) which will turn to 있어.
There are other exemptions to these specifically for special consonant ending verb which I am about to discover in my further reading.